Garumele (context 1)
Basic information
Sample name: Garumele (context 1)
Sample aka: Widi

Reference: V. Linseele and A. Haour. 2010. Animal remains from medieval Garumele, Niger. Journal of African Archaeology 8(2):167-184 [ER 3366]
Geography
Country: Niger

Coordinate: 14° 7' 6" N, 12° 58' 24" E
Basis of coordinate: stated in text
Geography comments: "also known as Widi"
"The dates relating to the occupation are problematic. Six radiocarbon dates... returned incoherent results" but based on "the material culture" the site dates from "most likely in the order of 700-200 years ago"
Climate and habitat
Lithology: sandstone
Taphonomic context: human accumulation
Archaeology: bone tools, ceramics, metal tools, stone tools
Habitat comments: "a three-kilometre-long enclosure of unfired bricks called tubali, and within it sparse brick fragments, apparently remains of the structures of baked red brick known to have once existed on the site"
the top three "contexts" in the section were "made up of fine gray and grayish brown sand, with at times high ash content and sporadic darker or lighter soil patches relating either to decayed archaeological materials or to post-depositional activity... Pottery, beads, small items of metal, bone and charcoal occurred throughout the sequence; spindle whorls, grinding stones, fired brick and shell were also recovered. No living structures or burials were noted"
Methods
Life forms: ungulates, birds, frogs, fishes, clams, snails
Sampling methods: quarry, screenwash
Sample size: 220
Years: 2005
Sampling comments: "A test excavation (initially 5x2 m, its sized reduced as work progressed in order to ensure the stability of the trench walls) was carried out through one of the numerous mounds within the tubali enclosure... All soil was sieved through a one-millimetre mesh"
sampling was "in September 2005"
Metadata
Sample: 3722
Contributor: John Alroy
Enterer: John Alroy
Created: 2020-11-30 15:39:31
Modified: 2020-11-30 15:39:31
Abundance distribution
23 species
10 singletons
total count 220
standardised richness: 9.4
Fisher's α: 6.469
geometric series k: 0.8356
Hurlbert's PIE: 0.8367
Shannon's H: 2.1606
Good's u: 0.9547
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