Basic information
Sample name: Ripplemead

Reference: R. E. Weems and B. B. Higgins. 1977. Post-Wisconsinan vertebrate remains from a deposit near Ripplemead, Virginia. NSS Bulletin 39:106-108 [ER 3128]
Country: United States
State: Virginia

Coordinate: 37° 20' N, 80° 41' W
Basis of coordinate: based on nearby landmark
Geography comments: "in an abandoned limestone quarry adjacent to the old U.S. 460 bridge on the south bank of New River" (coordinate based on Ripplemead)
thought to be "post-Wisconsinan" based on the vertebrate assemblage, but the large mammal fauna is actually Pleistocene
radiocarbon dating was attempted but "carbon-14 in the sample was insufficient"
Climate and habitat
Lithology: claystone
Taphonomic context: cave
Habitat comments: "The fissures... contain red clay, limestone breccia, New River stream gravels, landsnail shells, and vertebrate remains... Bones scattered on surrounding slopes were gnawed by rodents and then were washed or fell into the fissures. Much small mammal material, as well as the fish scraps and salamander vertebrae, were probably introduced as meal remnants dropped on the slopes above the river by predatory mammals and/or birds, most probably owls"
Life forms: bats, carnivores, rodents, ungulates, other small mammals, birds, lizards, snakes, frogs, salamanders, fishes
Sampling methods: quarry, surface
Sample size: 286
Sampling comments: "Remains were collected by surficial examination of both the fissure and the fissure outwash, as well as by acid preparation of fallen, calcite-cemented blocks from the northernmost fissure"
Sample: 3416
Contributor: John Alroy
Enterer: John Alroy
Created: 2019-08-31 14:29:06
Modified: 2019-08-31 14:36:34
Abundance distribution
33 species
13 singletons
total count 286
standardised richness: not computable
Fisher's α: 9.640
geometric series k: 0.8639
Hurlbert's PIE: 0.7990
Shannon's H: 2.2420
Good's u: 0.9547
Osteichthyes indet.9
Anaxyrus sp.4
"Bufo fowleri" or "Bufo woodhousei"
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis5
"Cryptobranchus allegheniensis"
Squamata indet.1
Colubridae indet.5
Crotalus horridus108
Strigidae indet.1
Parascalops breweri2
Blarina brevicauda315.1 g
Sorex fumeus18.5 g
Lasionycteris noctivagans110.0 g insectivore
Leporidae indet.9
Lepus or Sylvilagus
Tamias striatus2113 g frugivore-insectivore
Castor canadensis111 kg
Marmota monax14.5 kg
Erethizon dorsatum19.9 kg herbivore
Microtus sp.4
"Pitymys sp."
Myodes sp.1
"Clethrionomys sp."
Synaptomys cooperi629.0 g
one specimen tentatively referred
Microtus pennsylvanicus135.7 g
may include two indeterminate Microtus specimens
Neotoma floridana53252 g
Ondatra zibethicus11.1 kg
Peromyscus sp.11
leucopus or maniculatus
Procyon lotor25.5 kg carnivore-granivore
Spilogale putorius1633 g carnivore-invertivore
Pekania pennanti13.8 kg
"Martes pennanti"
Canis lupus243 kg carnivore
Urocyon cinereoargenteus14.1 kg frugivore-carnivore
Ursus americanus2115 kg browser-insectivore
Tapirus sp.3
Equus sp.3
Mylohyus sp.2
Odocoileus virginianus3875 kg herbivore