Haystack Cave (lower levels)
Basic information
Sample name: Haystack Cave (lower levels)
Sample aka: 5GN 189

Reference: S. D. Emslie. 1986. Late Pleistocene vertebrates from Gunnison County, Colorado. Journal of Paleontology 60(1):170-176 [ER 3116]
Country: United States
State: Colorado

Coordinate: 38.48° N, -107.17° W
Basis of coordinate: stated in text
Geography comments: NE1/4, SE1/4 of sec. 27, T49N, R3W"
there are "Two carbon 14 dates... based on bone apatite of unidentifiable fragments from levels 3 and 4 and 5 and 6", the first being 14, 935 +/- 610 B.P. and the second being "less accurate due to lesser amounts of available bone" and 12, 154 +/- 1, 700 B.P.
lower levels (4 to 6) are "undisturbed" and definitely Pleistocene
Climate and habitat
Lithology: not described
Taphonomic context: bird accumulation, cave
Habitat comments: "a small volcanic lava tube"
"cultural remains are distinct only in the upper two levels (40 cm)... deposition of bone in the lower levels probably is due to natural rather than cultural processes... bone deposition probably resulted from carnivores using the cave as a den, rodents (especially woodrats) dragging bones into the cave and nesting there, and birds roosting there... carnivores... may have been the primary source of bone deposition"
Life forms: carnivores, rodents, ungulates, other small mammals, birds, frogs
Sampling methods: quarry, screenwash
Sample size: 290
Sampling comments: "All matrix was screened through one-quarter-inch screen"
Sample: 3404
Contributor: John Alroy
Enterer: John Alroy
Created: 2019-08-30 13:16:42
Modified: 2019-08-30 13:21:12
Abundance distribution
22 species
9 singletons
total count 290
standardised richness: 9.7
Fisher's α: 5.529
geometric series k: 0.7890
Hurlbert's PIE: 0.7026
Shannon's H: 1.7631
Good's u: 0.9690
Anaxyrus sp.1
"Bufo boreas" or "Bufo woodhousei"
Buteo sp.4
Lagopus sp.1
Sialia sp.1
Ochotona princeps4157 g
Sylvilagus sp.10
Lepus sp.38
Marmota flaviventris145
Urocitellus richardsonii44251 g
"Spermophilus richardsonii"
Thomomys talpoides2
nine specifically indeterminate specimens are also present
Neotoma cinerea4240 g
seven indeterminate specimens of cinerea or mexicana are also present
Phenacomys intermedius123.5 g
Microtus longicaudus130.2 g
seven indeterminate specimens of Microtus are also present
Lagurus curtatus430.3 g
Vulpes vulpes15.3 kg carnivore-insectivore
two other small canid specimens are also present
Ursus americanus1115 kg browser-insectivore
Spilogale putorius1633 g carnivore-invertivore
Miracinonyx cf. trumani1
"Acinonyx (Miracinonyx) trumani"
Odocoileus hemionus365 kg browser
Antilocapra americana345 kg
Ovis canadensis18
Equus sp.2