Lakonis Cave I (lower bone breccia)
Basic information
Sample name: Lakonis Cave I (lower bone breccia)

Reference: B. M. Starkovich, P. Elefanti, P. Karkanas, and E. Panagopoulou. 2018. Site use and maintenance in the Middle Paleolithic at Lakonis I (Peloponnese, Greece). Journal of Paleolithic Archaeology x:1-30 [ER 3066]
Country: Greece

Coordinate: 36° 46' N, 22° 34' E
Basis of coordinate: based on nearby landmark
Geography comments: "on the Mani Peninsula, 3 km east of the town of Gytheion" (basis of coordinate)
"AMS dating results based on cultural material taken from well-defined hearths yielded dates of 39, 640 ± 1000 BP (uncal), 43, 335 ± 1800 BP (uncal), and 43, 150 ± 1790 BP (uncal)... for the hearth context, while the upper bone breccia with a date of 43, 010 ± 350 BP (uncal)... is broadly contemporaneous... The lower bone breccia overlies beach conglomerate deposits dated preliminary to marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 5a... and likely formed during MIS 4"
Climate and habitat
Substrate: ground surface
Lithology: breccia
Taphonomic context: cave, human accumulation
Habitat comments: "Overlying unit V is a bone breccia (Figs. 2 and 3) with lithic and charcoal remains in a reddish clayey matrix, unit IV, which preserves the site’s initial use sometime after 100 ka. In the central part of the sequence, units III and II consist of a reddish-brown sandy clay matrix containing anthropogenic remains interspersed with roofspall and boulders from the gradual overhang collapse. The uppermost unit (I) is a palimpsest of overlapping hearth lenses forming complex combustion structures"
Life forms: carnivores, ungulates, other small mammals, birds, turtles
Sampling methods: quarry
Sample size: 131
Years: 1999 - 2010
Sampling comments: "excavated from 1999 to 2010"
additional indeterminate ungulate remains are present
Sample: 3337
Contributor: John Alroy
Enterer: John Alroy
Created: 2019-08-24 18:52:45
Modified: 2019-08-25 20:43:10
Abundance distribution
9 species
4 singletons
total count 131
standardised richness: not computable
Fisher's α: 2.191
geometric series k: 0.5589
Hurlbert's PIE: 0.3433
Shannon's H: 0.8368
Good's u: 0.9695
Bos primigenius6
Cervus elaphus3104 kg
"red deer"
Sus scrofa1054 kg herbivore
Dama dama10562 kg
"fallow deer"
Carnivora indet.1
"small carnivore"
Lynx sp.1
Testudines indet.1
Lepus sp.1
Aves indet.3