Vulpes vulpes (carnivore)

Mass: 5.3 kg based on Cavallini 1997, Mohamed 2016, Bellows and Mitchell 2002, and Layne 1958

Diet: carnivore based on Panek and Bresinski 2002 and Zhang et al. 2011; carnivore-frugivore based on Ables 1969 and Hockman and Chapman 1983; carnivore-insectivore based on Azevedo et al. 2006

Abundance: 0.10 to 47.47% (median 5.57%)

Latitudinal range: -37.3° to 47.4°

Habitats: Mediterranean woodland (2), desert/xeric shrubland (2), montane grassland (3), temperate broadleaf/mixed forest (10), temperate coniferous forest (3), temperate savanna (2), tropical/subtropical dry broadleaf forest (2)

Found in 24 samples

Afghanistan: Nuristan Province

Australia: Kangaroo Valley (low cattle disturbance), Goonoo State Conservation Area (on-track, pre-baiting), Ben Boyd National Park and Nadgee Nature Reserve

China: Altun Mountains, Suojia Township, Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve

France: Côte d’Or

Iran: Lar Protected Area

Italy: Western Trento Province (2012)

Japan: Mt. Ohdaigahara (eastern area)

Kyrgyzstan: SaryChat Ertash Zapovednik (ridge), Jangart Hunting Reserve (ridge)

Lebanon: Jabal Moussa Biosphere Reserve (spring)

Pakistan: Khunjerab National Park

Romania: Southern Transylvania

Turkey: Yaylacik Research Forest, Ciglikara Nature Reserve, Barhal Stream

United States: Memphis, Richlands, Boulder County, North Fork of the Cache la Poudre River

Yemen: Hawf

Size measurements:
♀ body mass4940 kgN = 125Cavallini 1997
♀ body mass600 gN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ body mass1900 kgN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ body mass4900 kgN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ body mass5750 kgN = 205Cavallini 1997
♂ body mass4848 kgN = 1Layne 1958
♂ body mass1300 kgN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ body mass2900 kgN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ body mass2100 kgN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ total body length590 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ total body length800 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ total body length970 mmN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ total body length1031 mmN = 1Layne 1958
♂ total body length645 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ total body length885 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ total body length960 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ tail length230 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ tail length320 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ tail length360 mmN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ tail length365 mmN = 1Layne 1958
♂ tail length290 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ tail length390 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ tail length410 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ hind foot length95 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ hind foot length120 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ hind foot length149 mmN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ hind foot length165 mmN = 1Layne 1958
♂ hind foot length105 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ hind foot length130 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ hind foot length140 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ ear length60 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ ear length80 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ ear length79 mmN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ ear length70 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ ear length90 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ ear length90 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ skull length85.9 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull length97.4 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull length121.2 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull length113.4 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ condylobasal length80.4 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ condylobasal length91.9 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ condylobasal length117.6 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ condylobasal length109.7 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ skull width51.7 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull width56.1 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull width68.1 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull width59.6 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ interorbital breadth16.5 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ interorbital breadth18.1 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ interorbital breadth23.7 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ interorbital breadth20.9 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ lower tooth row length37.9 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ lower tooth row length41.3 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ lower tooth row length63.4 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ lower tooth row length59.3 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016

See also Vulpes, Vulpes cana, Vulpes chama, Vulpes ferrilata, Vulpes sp.