Vulpes vulpes (carnivore)

Mass: 5.3 kg based on Cavallini 1997, Mohamed 2016, Bellows and Mitchell 2002, and Layne 1958

Diet: carnivore based on Panek and Bresinski 2002 and Zhang et al. 2011; carnivore-frugivore based on Ables 1969 and Hockman and Chapman 1983; carnivore-insectivore based on Azevedo et al. 2006

Abundance: 0.02 to 47.47% (median 1.51%)

Latitudinal range: -37.3° to 56.3°

Habitats: (42), Mediterranean woodland (3), desert/xeric shrubland (5), montane grassland (3), temperate broadleaf/mixed forest (23), temperate coniferous forest (3), temperate savanna (2), tropical/subtropical dry broadleaf forest (2)

Found in 83 samples

Afghanistan: Nuristan Province

Armenia: Hovk-1 Cave (Unit 4)

Australia: Kangaroo Valley (low cattle disturbance), Goonoo State Conservation Area (on-track, pre-baiting), Ben Boyd National Park and Nadgee Nature Reserve

Bulgaria: Osogovo Mountain (Natura 2000 study), Osogovo Mountain (intensive study), Osogovo Mountain (opportunistic study)

Canada: Lindsay, Canadian National Railway (spring), Canadian National Railway (summer), Canadian National Railway (fall), Canadian National Railway (winter), Charlie Lake Cave (Zone IV), Keffer (Midden 57, screened), Irving-Johnston

China: Altun Mountains, Suojia Township, Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve

France: Côte d’Or, Salève, Grotte du Bison (Level I), Mas d'Azil

Georgia: Ortvale Klde (early Upper Paleolithic)

India: Dachigam National Park

Iran: Lar Protected Area, Wezmeh Cave

Iraq: Palegawra Cave

Israel: Shikma Biosphere Zone (winter), Manot Cave (Area D, Biogenic Unit)

Italy: Western Trento Province (2012), Riparo Biarzo (SU 5), Riparo Biarzo (SU 4 + 3B), Riparo Biarzo (SU 3A), Mondeval de Sora (SU 8)

Japan: Mt. Ohdaigahara (eastern area), Fujiyoshida City

Jordan: Dana Nature Reserve, Wadi Taiyiba (WT6)

Kyrgyzstan: SaryChat Ertash Zapovednik (ridge), Jangart Hunting Reserve (ridge)

Lebanon: Jabal Moussa Biosphere Reserve (spring), Moghr el-Ahwal Cave 3 (Phases F & E)

Pakistan: Khunjerab National Park

Poland: Raj Cave (layer 6)

Romania: Southern Transylvania

Russia: Geographical Society Cave, Zapovednaya

Spain: Larraga, Abric Romaní (Level Ja), Imanolen Arrobia, El Mirador Cave

Switzerland: Zurich (movement photos)

Tunisia: Doukanet el Khoutifa

Turkey: Yaylacik Research Forest, Ciglikara Nature Reserve, Barhal Stream

Ukraine: Prolom II, Mirnoe

United Kingdom: Lynford Quarry

United States: Memphis, Richlands, Boulder County, North Fork of the Cache la Poudre River, The Wilds, Zesch Cave, Crystal Ball Cave, Haystack Cave (upper levels), Haystack Cave (lower levels), Golf Course, Harrodsburg Crevice, Bat Cave, Dust Cave (Zones T and U), Black Cat Cave (interior), Black Cat Cave (Test Unit 1), Guard, Pine Hill, Meyer Cave, Sunshine Locality (Unit E), Schulze Cave (layer C1), Schulze Cave (layer C2)

Yemen: Hawf

Size measurements:
♀ body mass4940 kgN = 125Cavallini 1997
♀ body mass600 gN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ body mass1900 kgN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ body mass4900 kgN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ body mass5750 kgN = 205Cavallini 1997
♂ body mass4848 kgN = 1Layne 1958
♂ body mass1300 kgN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ body mass2900 kgN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ body mass2100 kgN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ total body length590 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ total body length800 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ total body length970 mmN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ total body length1031 mmN = 1Layne 1958
♂ total body length645 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ total body length885 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ total body length960 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ tail length230 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ tail length320 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ tail length360 mmN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ tail length365 mmN = 1Layne 1958
♂ tail length290 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ tail length390 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ tail length410 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ hind foot length95 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ hind foot length120 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ hind foot length149 mmN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ hind foot length165 mmN = 1Layne 1958
♂ hind foot length105 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ hind foot length130 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ hind foot length140 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ ear length60 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ ear length80 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ ear length79 mmN = 1Bellows and Mitchell 2002
♂ ear length70 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ ear length90 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ ear length90 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ skull length85.9 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull length97.4 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull length121.2 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull length113.4 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ condylobasal length80.4 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ condylobasal length91.9 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ condylobasal length117.6 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ condylobasal length109.7 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ skull width51.7 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull width56.1 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull width68.1 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ skull width59.6 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ interorbital breadth16.5 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ interorbital breadth18.1 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ interorbital breadth23.7 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ interorbital breadth20.9 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♀ lower tooth row length37.9 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ lower tooth row length41.3 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ lower tooth row length63.4 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016
♂ lower tooth row length59.3 mmN = 1Mohamed 2016

See also Vulpes, Vulpes bengalensis, Vulpes cana, Vulpes chama, Vulpes corsac, Vulpes ferrilata, Vulpes lagopus, Vulpes macrotis, Vulpes sp., Vulpes velox