Cervus elaphus (ungulate)

Mass: 104 kg based on López-Olvera et al. 2013

Abundance: 0.11 to 71.43% (median 7.79%)

Latitudinal range: 32.6° to 52.5°

Habitats: (39), montane grassland (1), temperate broadleaf/mixed forest (3), temperate coniferous forest (1), temperate savanna (1)

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Found in 45 samples

Armenia: Hovk-1 Cave (Unit 4)

China: Gouli Region, Dazhushan

Croatia: Northern Velebit National Park, Mujina Pecina (Level B), Mujina Pecina (Level C), Mujina Pecina (Level D1), Mujina Pecina (Level D2)

France: Côte d’Or, Grotte du Bison (Level I), Mas d'Azil, Les Auzières 2

Georgia: Ortvale Klde (late Middle Paleolithic), Ortvale Klde (early Upper Paleolithic), Dzudzuana Cave (lower area, Unit B)

Greece: Lakonis Cave I (hearth complex), Lakonis Cave I (lower bone breccia)

Iran: Wezmeh Cave, Golestan National Park

Iraq: Palegawra Cave

Israel: Manot Cave (Area D, Biogenic Unit)

Italy: Western Trento Province (2012), Cava Muracci, Riparo Biarzo (SU 5), Riparo Biarzo (SU 4 + 3B), Riparo Biarzo (SU 3A), Mondeval de Sora (SU 8), Mondeval de Sora (SU 31)

Jordan: Wadi Taiyiba (WT6)

Lebanon: Moghr el-Ahwal Cave 3 (Phases F & E)

Poland: Raj Cave (layer 4), Raj Cave (layer 6)

Romania: Southern Transylvania

Russia: Geographical Society Cave, Bugul'deika II Layer II-2

Spain: Abric Romaní (Level Ja), Abric Romaní (Level Jb), Jou Puerta, El Horno Cave (Level 1), El Horno Cave (Level 2), Imanolen Arrobia, Cueva del Ange, El Mirador Cave

Ukraine: Prolom II, Mirnoe

Size measurements:
♀ body mass85900 kgN = 38López-Olvera et al. 2013
♀ body mass94200 kgN = 11López-Olvera et al. 2013
♂ body mass119000 kgN = 21López-Olvera et al. 2013
♂ body mass143800 kgN = 18López-Olvera et al. 2013

See also Cervus, Cervus albirostris, Cervus canadensis, Cervus grayi, Cervus hanglu, Cervus nippon, Cervus sp., Cervus spp.