Canis lupus (carnivore)

Mass: 44 kg based on Ballard et al. 1991 and Ingles 1963

Diet: carnivore based on Kolenosky and Johnston 1967

Abundance: 0.01 to 71.26% (median 1.82%)

Latitudinal range: -37.3° to 72.8°

Habitats: (79), Mediterranean woodland (4), boreal forest/taiga (4), desert/xeric shrubland (7), montane grassland (6), temperate broadleaf/mixed forest (23), temperate coniferous forest (3), temperate savanna (2), tropical/subtropical dry broadleaf forest (12), tropical/subtropical moist broadleaf forest (18), tropical/subtropical savanna (7), tundra (1)

Biogeographic distribution: Nearctic, Palearctic, Central Asia, East Asia, Europe, Southwest Asia

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Found in 166 samples

Argentina: Acambuco

Armenia: Hovk-1 Cave (Unit 4)

Australia: Goonoo State Conservation Area (on-track, pre-baiting), Ben Boyd National Park and Nadgee Nature Reserve, Taunton National Park, Groote Eylandt, Alyangula, Kurrajong (KP1)

Brazil: Estação Biológica de Santa Lúcia (primary forest), Tapiraí and Piedade Municipalities, Serra do Japi Biological Reserve (2009/2010), Quedas do Rio Bonito Ecological Park (camera trapping), Una and Arataca (forest), Una and Arataca (cabruca), Reserva Natural Vale (year 1), Iguaçu National Park, Reserva Biológica de Araras, Private Reserve of Natural Heritage Recanto das Antas, Catimbau National Park

Bulgaria: Osogovo Mountain (Natura 2000 study), Osogovo Mountain (intensive study), Osogovo Mountain (opportunistic study)

Canada: Canadian National Railway (spring), Canadian National Railway (summer), Canadian National Railway (fall), Canadian National Railway (winter), Charlie Lake Cave (Zone IV), Learmonth Site, Peale Point House 2 (1), Keffer (Midden 57, screened), Keffer (Midden 57, floated), McNichol Creek (house depression), McNichol Creek (midden), Irving-Johnston, Cactus Flower, Winefred Lake, EMEND site (retention level 100%, replicate 1), EMEND site (retention level 100%, replicate 2), EMEND site (retention level 100%, replicate 3)

China: Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (camera traps), Altun Mountains, Gouli Region, Suojia Township, Mount Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve, Guanyinshan Nature Reserve, Yanchiwan National Nature Reserve, Songhua River, Tawendaliha, Hunchun National Reserve (winter), Hunchun National Reserve (summer)

Colombia: Parque Nacional Natural Farallones de Cali (forest), Parque Nacional Natural Farallones de Cali (scrub), Otún Quimbaya Flora and Fauna Sanctuary (2009), Otún Quimbaya Flora and Fauna Sanctuary (2010-1), Otún Quimbaya Flora and Fauna Sanctuary (2010-2), Otún Quimbaya Flora and Fauna Sanctuary (2011)

Croatia: Northern Velebit National Park, Mujina Pecina (Level B), Mujina Pecina (Level D2)

France: Salève, Grotte du Bison (Level I), Mas d'Azil

Georgia: Dzudzuana Cave (lower area, Unit B)

India: Similipal Tiger Reserve (camera traps), Akole Tahsil, Naikund, Girawad, Malvan (Period I), Malvan (Period II)

Indonesia: Bawean Island (wet season), Bawean Island (dry season)

Iran: Wezmeh Cave, Golestan National Park

Israel: Shikma Biosphere Zone (summer), Shikma Biosphere Zone (winter), Manot Cave (Area D, Biogenic Unit)

Italy: Western Trento Province (2012), Caverna degli Orsi (sondage A, Unit 10), Caverna degli Orsi (sondage A, Unit 11.1), Cava Muracci, Mondeval de Sora (SU 8)

Japan: Fujiyoshida City, Hotohama (2010 - 2011), Hotohama (2011 - 2012), Obihiro (wildlife overpass)

Jordan: Dana Nature Reserve, Wadi Taiyiba (WT6)

Kyrgyzstan: Jangart Hunting Reserve (ridge)

Lebanon: Jabal Moussa Biosphere Reserve (spring)

Malaysia: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Mexico: La Playa, Schroeder Site (Structure 1), Xalapa

Oman: Southwest Dhofar Mountains

Paraguay: Isla Alta

Poland: Raj Cave (layer 4), Raj Cave (layer 6)

Romania: Southern Transylvania

Russia: Geographical Society Cave, Zapovednaya, Bugul'deika II Layer II-2

South Africa: Between George and Karatara, Kloof/Hillcrest

Spain: Larraga, Abric Romaní (Level Ja), Imanolen Arrobia, Cueva del Ange

Switzerland: Zurich (movement photos)

Thailand: Khao Yai National Park, Khao Ang Rue Nai Wildlife Sanctuary

Turkey: Yaylacik Research Forest, Marmaris, Ciglikara Nature Reserve, Barhal Stream, Koycegiz Wildlife Development Reserve

Ukraine: Prolom II, Mirnoe

United Kingdom: Lynford Quarry

United States: North Fork of the Cache la Poudre River, Raleigh-Durham, North of the Michigamme Reservoir, Dalton Highway, The Wilds, Crystal Ball Cave, OMNH locality VI03, Papago Springs Cave, Golf Course, Rancho La Brea (Pit 91), Harrodsburg Crevice, Ripplemead, Bluegrass (macro), Hulme Site, Lower Walnut Settlement, McKinley Site (Zone A), McKinley Site (Zone B), Angel Site (Subdivision W10D), Steck, Croley-Evans, Watson Brake (6.4 mm fraction), Rattlesnake Point Pueblo (Unit 2), Cadwalader, Mykut Rockshelter, Black Cat Cave (interior), Black Cat Cave (Test Unit 1), Harris Creek, Hobson Site, Guard, Prison Farm, Pine Hill, Otter Creek No. 2 (Zone 3), Cole Gravel Pit, Baker Village, Schuiling Cave, Meyer Cave, Polecat Creek (alluvial gravel), Polecat Creek (black earth), Pintwater Cave (Unit 3, level 8), Schulze Cave (layer B), Schulze Cave (layer C2), Natural Chimneys, Flagg Swamp Rockshelter (Archaic), Molybdenum Ridge (triggered detections), Molybdenum Ridge (time-lapse detections), Black Rapids Training Area (triggered detections)

Yemen: Hawf

Zimbabwe: Ingwezi Game Management Project

Size measurements:
♀ body mass41800 kgN = 14Ballard et al. 1991
♂ body mass47400 kgN = 17Ballard et al. 1991
♂ body mass25401 kgN = 1Ingles 1963
♂ total body length1500 mmN = 1Ingles 1963
♂ tail length400 mmN = 1Ingles 1963
♂ hind foot length255 mmN = 1Ingles 1963
♂ ear length105 mmN = 1Ingles 1963

See also Canis, Canis adustus, Canis aureus, Canis dirus, Canis familiaris, Canis latrans, Canis mesomelas, Canis sp., Canis spp.